Cruise Control

I’m driving by on cruise control.
Watching others just pass me by.
Watching the world speed on by.
I’m driving by on cruise control.
Watching others just pass me by.
Watching the world speed on by.

Sometimes I just don’t know which way to go.
Should I turn left or right?
Should I keep on driving on cruise control?

I’m driving by on cruise control.
Watching others just pass me by.
Watching the world speed on by.
I’m driving by on cruise control.
Watching others just pass me by.
Watching the world speed on by.

Watching the world just pass me by.
Everything goes by so very fast.
Speeding by as I go by.
When you’re living life on Cruise control.

I see your lights up ahead.
I see your flashes but,
I’m staying in my lane.
As I drive by on cruise control.

Maybe I should take a chance
See where this turn will take me.
Put my foot down on the gas.
See where this road takes me.
See how far I can go.
Will I reach my goal or should I stay on cruise control?

Should I make a stand or stay where I am?
Sooner or later I’ll make my move
Sooner or later I’ll reach my goal

Make that turn and,
Put my foot down on the gas!
I’m at the wheel, I’m following!
It’s all my choice which way I go.

Should I make that turn,
Take a chance.
See where this turn will take me.
Put my foot down on the gas.
See how far I can go.
Will I reach my goal or should I stay on cruise control?


Pragmatics and Semantics

Pragmatics and semantics are two branches of linguistics according to (Hassa, 2016),  

“… that are related to the meaning of language, there is a major difference between the two. Knowing the difference between semantics and pragmatics can help clear the misunderstandings and miscommunication in language.”  So, what is the difference between these two branches of linguistics, how is this important to human communication and how can teachers use this information in the classroom?  

What is the Difference between Pragmatics and Semantics? 

While semantics and pragmatics both deal with words and their meaning, pragmatics goes further into the intended meaning that the speaker is trying to convey while semantics is only concerned with what the words mean. According to Szabó (2005), “Semantics is the study of meaning, or more precisely, the study of the relation between linguistic expressions and their meaning.” This means semantics is the study of words and what they mean. Semantics is not concerned with how the writer or speaker is using the words. It is just interested in what the words or phrases mean. According to the article, What is Pragmatics? “Pragmatics studies how language is used by real people in real context, in spoken discourse and written contexts, and is highly influenced by cultural and social contexts.” Pragmatics is still interested in what the words mean as in semantics, but it goes deeper into the context the words are spoken. Pragmatics deals with context while semantics does not.  

Why is Semantic and Pragmatic Interpretation so Important to Human Communication? 

Why are these two areas of linguistics important to human communication? Language is essential in communication whether it be through sign language, brail or another means of communication. Understanding language is important to how we as humans communicate. “Meaning seems at once the most obvious feature of language and the most obscure aspect to study. It is obvious because it is what we use language for–to communicate with each other, to convey.” And therefore, pragmatics and semantics are so important to human communication because it is how we communicate. One needs to know what the words mean, their basic dictionary meaning to be able to speak, write and understand. One then must understand what the speaker is trying to say, the message they are trying to convey to be able communicate effectively. When someone is learning a new language, these two branches of linguistics are important to study. They need to first learn what the dictionary meaning of some words are so they have some vocabulary and then they can work on what the speaker means. Without semantics and pragmatics, we would not be able to communicate.  

How Can Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics Inform Your Teaching? 

Now let’s think about our students who have a challenging time with pragmatics. This can be difficult concept for young children, English Language Learners, people with a hearing impairment, and those with Autism. This comes into play in social media where it is difficult to understand the tone in someone’s typing and therefore it is difficult to understand what the person means. Understanding this helps us know that we need to choose our words wisely. Something you type might be innocent, but someone might interpret what you typed differently than what you meant to say. Sarcasm is difficult to detect in chats. It is far easier to understand sarcasm when you can hear what the person is saying and hear the tone in their voice. 

Students who have a hearing impairment may miss the tone when someone speaks. They may rely on sign language, but then again just like typing in a chat or a message, they can miss the tone. Students with Autism and young children have a challenging time understanding social cues. They often do not understand sarcasm and often misinterpret situations.  

How Can Teachers Use This Information to Facilitate Learning in Their Own Classrooms? 

 According to the article, What is Semantics, “ELLs are learning both social and academic language of English. Social language, or playground and everyday speech can take only 1-2 years to develop.”  Teachers can help these students by encouraging students to “explore words, looking at origins of words, connections and similarities of words between languages…” This will help them become better communicators.  

Often, when teaching literature, I ask my students, “What is the author trying to tell us?  What does this sentence mean? What is the speaker trying to convey?”  I have some students who have Autism, and at times we talk about “reading the room”. Which means reading the atmosphere of the room before commenting on something. And by knowing the atmosphere, it will help them understand what the speaker is trying to say or what they mean to say. For example, when my daughter was little, I told her to “Hold her horses.” She left the room and came back holding her My Little Pony’s and said, “Okay mom I am holding my horses.” We all had a big laugh, but then I explained what it meant and why we say it. Years ago, when horses and stagecoaches were the way we traveled, when you wanted someone to slow down you told them to “hold their horses.” At that point they were actually holding real horses, today it is an idiom which means to slow down. When these situations occur, the teacher should explain the significance of the word or the phrase and explain what the speaker means by what they said.  


 Pragmatics and semantics are two branches of linguistics with semantics dealing only with the meaning of words and pragmatics dealing with word meaning and how these words are used. “Knowing the difference between semantics and pragmatics can help clear the misunderstandings and miscommunication in language” (Hassa, 2016).  

Page BreakReferences 

Hassa, (2016 November 16). The Difference Between. Retrieved from 

Ladusaw, W. (n.d.). Meaning (Semantics and Pragmatics). Retrieved from

Szabó, Z.G. (2005 October 18). The Distinction between Semantics and Pragmatics. Retrieved  from  Distinction-between-Semantics-and-Pragmatics-1n5ehuq.pdf. 

What is Pragmatics? (n.d.). Retrieved from                                                             

What is Semantics? (n.d.). Retrieved from                                                         

Too Young

Failure, disappointment and regret.
There is an ache in my heart each time we lose another.
For all that are lost, this despair won’t dissolve.

How could we have done more?
What could I have done?
Why do so many lives end this way? 

The pain and sickening feeling each time I get the news.
Another one lost, and still another. 
What can be done, when so many are lost.

What can we do to stop this?
Too young to be a statistic. 

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cleaning a sink with yellow sponge and cream cleanser

Some people are like sponges.
They soak up whatever is around them,
And then pour it out on others.

When they are with good people,
They absorb your goodness,
And then pour it out on others.

When they are around toxic people,
They become like them,
And then pour it out on others.

Don’t be a sponge.
Know who you are.
Beware of sponges and always be the good person
So the sponges can soak up your goodness.

Worrying and Waiting

My fingers and feet move constantly as I sit waiting.
I pace back and forth and try not to think of what lies ahead of me. 

When will this be over?
This fear I have inside.
When will I know?
And stop the constant waiting that is eating away my soul. 

I can’t sit still. I have to keep moving. 
Keeping busy, to keep my mind filled.
The dishes, the laundry, vacuuming, anything I can.

My thoughts race to what will happen and I plan for the worst.
I play out scenarios and worry myself even more. 

I find myself constantly checking, every moment I have. 
Still nothing and my heart beats even faster than before. 
How can it take so long? 

I look for results.
I check over and over again.
I keep looking for answers,
My heart can’t handle the unknown.

I pace back and forth.
Fidget in my seat.
Tap my feet and twiddle my thumbs,
But nothing helps me to realize my stress.

The waiting and not knowing.
The waiting and unknown are eating away at me. 
Worrying brings nothing but despair. 

 Can any one of you by worrying add a single hour to your life? Matthew 6:27.

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First Language and Second Language Acquisition

Freedman and Freedman (2014) presents many theories on language acquisition with regards to first language and second language acquisition. There are some theories which are not accepted by Linguists today and several new ones which have impacted the study of language. How do these theories affect second language acquisition and how can we use this knowledge in our own classroom? 

 The Major Theories Concerning First Language Acquisition 

There are many theories of language acquisition that are not formally acknowledged today. These historical theories were used in the past and widely accepted in their time. According to (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 23-26) there are three historical views of language acquisition, Imitation Theory, Reinforcement theory and the Behaviorist theory.    

Historical Views of Language Acquisition 

The Imitation theory, The Reinforcement Theory and the Behaviorist Theory are three historical views of language acquisition presented by Freedman and Freedman (2014) that are not accepted by Linguistics today.  

The Imitation Theory states, “Children learn language through imitation. According to this theory, the child hears a word or phrase and attempts to repeat it” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 23). This means that a child can only say the things they hear. If they have not heard the word, they would not repeat it. This theory does not account for the made-up or created words children make.  

Another theory is the Reinforcement theory which states, “Children develop language through positive reinforcement of standard language forms, and they are corrected when they produce nonstandard forms” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 23). Some language is learned this way, but it does not account for all learned language. In the video, a parent talks about how her son says pajamas and no matter how much she corrects him, he still says the word the wrong way (Ruth, 2016). I found myself in this situation with my own children. No matter how many times I corrected them they never said animals the right way. Years later, they have developed their language to the point where they no longer say animals incorrectly but was that natural development or my constant telling them how to say it correctly? They never heard me say it the wrong way so how did they come up with this new way to say animal on their own.  

The Behaviorist Theory  

Finally, the Behaviorist Theory, “Combines elements of imitation theory and reinforcement theory” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 24). It states that children imitate those around and them and are positively reinforced when they speak correctly. There are several problems with this theory. First it does not account for the changes in learning environments. A child in a vocabulary enriched family and a child who is not in such a situation will still develop language. Secondly, if language is learned through imitation and reinforcement then why are humans the only ones who learn how to speak? There must be something more to language. Another problem is the students do not just imitate adults. If they did, we wouldn’t get three-year-olds creating their own words. Finally, this theory does not account for how fast children learn language.  

Current Views of First Language Acquisition  

“The foremost linguist in the United States, Noam Chomsky, developed a theory referred to as Generative Grammar” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 26). He believes that children gain much of their language before they even enter school. “By the time they reach school, most children have mastered many of the features of their languages and can use it effortlessly to comprehend and produce sentences” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 27). Though we still learn as we go through school the mechanism to learn have been present since early childhood.  

Another view of first language acquisition is the Social Interaction Theory. This theory states that children acquire language as they interact with others. When children speak and it is not correct, instead of correcting them use their language. It encourages them to continue and use more language. Teachers should try to understand what their emergent bilinguals’ students are saying and let them explore the language.  

The Two Views of Second Language Acquisition 

There are two views of second language acquisition, presented by Freedman and Freedman presents (2014), are that language is acquired or language is learned. These two have led to Krashen’s theory of second language acquisition and Schumann’s theory of second language acquisition. Krashen believes people acquire language both consciously and subconsciously. According to Krashen, the first way we learn is by he is by studying the language and learning vocabulary and rules. The second way we learn is called acquisition. This means you subconsciously pick up the language. People pick up the language while they are doing daily things and being part of their culture. Schuman’s theory is based on social interactions. While Krashen speaks of subconsciously picking up language by being immersed in the culture, Schumann’s view is that people must immerse themselves and consciously work on picking up the language from within the culture or by social integrations of being part of a group or culture.  

My Teaching  

In my school, we only have a few students who are English language Learners. In the past I was teaching content instead of Language as I was not the language teacher. I would translate tests into Spanish for him to see if he understood the content, but that does not help us understand if he understands the language. I would still like to see if he has mastered the content, however I would also like to see that he understands the language. Following Krashen’s model, I should use English as much as possible without the translations. I should help my student be fully immersed in the culture of the school and interact with other students.  


 There are many theories on language acquisition, but teachers should acknowledge and learn newer models. Many of us learned a language in high school and had to learn the grammar of the language without ever speaking it. In the article, “Why L2 teaching should mirror L1 Acquisition,” the author speaks of the process of learning your second language is similar to the process used to learn your first language. We learn language at an early age before we learn grammar formally in school. If this is the case for our first language, then why shouldn’t it be the case for our second language? Shouldn’t we learn our second language the same way we learned our first language? 


Freeman, D. E,. & Freeman, Y. S., (2014). Essential Linguistics: What Teachers Need to Know to Teach (7th ed.). Heinemann. 

Magrath, D. (2016, October 12). Why l2 teaching should mirror 1L acquisition. MultiBrief. 

Ruth, J. (2016, February 14). Acquiring the Human Language. YouTube.  

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Creed Elite Wrestling Show #31

Creed Elite Wrestling Show #31


Extreme Rules Mark Bennett vs Grav1ty W3ll Hell in a Cell

Baddest Mofo in the Yard Havoc vs Bullet

Submission Women’s United States Championship Catherine Storm vs Miss V

Ladder Match The winner faces Empress Champion Zelda Bunny vs Kelsey Extreme

Triple Threat Elimination Pin/Submission/KO Jon Ewing vs Jeff Black vs Big Ben

8-Man Battle Royal Winner faces United States Champion Aleksander Colt vs Billy the Bird vs Celtic Psycho vs Ghost Edwards vs Bear Briggs vs Will the Icon vs Marcus Williams vs Son Goku

Elimination Chamber Winner faces Baddest Mofo in the Yard MX Goldman vs Owen Misery vs The Psycho vs Ronny Butler vs Van Creed vs The Dragon

MIA Rules Dragon King Championship Jerry Pones vs T9X

Main Event Triple Threat Pin/Submission/KO United States Championship Lionel Greed vs Kodi King vs Tommy Haver #wwe #wwek2k #wwe2k19 #raw #SDLive #live #prowrestling #wwe2k20 #usanetwork #foxsports #Aew #njpw #pwn #impactwresttling #roh #RoyalRumble #WWEChampionship #FacebookGaming #WWEHOF #wrestling #WrestleMania #nxtuesday #wwenxt #HellInACell #WWE2K22 #HurtBusiness #ladiesnight #cardib #Summerslam #bestintheworld #AEWALLOUT #CMPUNK #BECKYLYNCH #RAMPAGE #TAKEOVER36 #BRYANDANIELSON #ADAMCOLE #BROCKLESNAR #live #GCW

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3 Approaches to the Study of Language 


3 Approaches to the Study of Language 

Freeman & Freeman (2014) present three approaches to the study of language. The first one discussed is language as structure. Those who follow this approach want to learn the grammar and mechanics of the language. The second one discussed is language as a mental faculty. Those who follow this approach believe that the human brain is preconditioned to learn language. They believe there is a connection between one’s cognitive abilities and language acquisition. The final approach is language as a functional resource. Those who follow this approach view language as a way to function. They are more concerned with the social interactions to develop language. What are the key ideas of each of these approaches and what are the implications for teaching each approach?  

Language as a Structure 

Language as structure refers to grammar. Those who follow this method are concerned with various parts of language, for example, they would teach sentence diagrams and have students identify words according to their part of speech such as a noun or a verb and so on. They study the Syntax of the language. The problem is we assume that all languages have the same parts of speech. This however has been the way many Americans have been taught language in the past and still current in many cases. This method does not allow students to learn how to communicate in the language they have chosen to learn.  

Language as Mental Faculty  

Language as a mental faculty deals with the connection between language and cognition. Language is something that is innate to all humans and part of our cognition. It is something that is preconditioned it us. Humans have an innate ability to learn language. Does this mean that humans only have this ability at an early age, or does this mean that we can learn language at any age? Does this mean that other species do not have the same ability? People who follow this method try to use this innate ability to teach language.  

Language as Functional Resource 

Language as a functional resource means language is about communication. Many have talked about how language should be inclusive. Which means when you study language you should be fully immersed in the language and the culture. This approach focuses on, “engaging in social interactions, humans develop the language they need” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p. 12). There are three aspects of this approach the field, the tenor, and the mode. All three of these aspects work together to in social interactions. However, things might be perceived differently in different cultures. What is accepted in one culture may not be accepted in another.  


All three of these approaches have merit and all add something to the study of language, however on their own they are missing key components. While grammar is important when learning a language, it cannot be taught as the only way to learn language. The same goes for language as a mental faculty. Even if language is an innate human ability, that does not mean that we can’t learn to use the other approaches. Finally, language as a functional approach is wonderful, but it does nothing to help someone read or write in that language. In conclusion, all approaches have merit, but it would be better for teachers to combine them.  


Freeman, D. E,. & Freeman, Y. S., (2014). Essential Linguistics: What Teachers Need to Know to Teach (7th ed.).


No Longer Run

I will no longer run after people.
I will no longer seek you out.
I will no longer worry and fret.
I will no longer care.

Life is too short to hold onto people,
Who doesn't want to be held onto.
Life is too short to work about,
Those who don’t worry about you.
Life's too short to seek out,
Those who won’t seek you out. 

I will no longer run after people.
I will no longer seek you out.
I will no longer worry and fret.
I will no longer care.

If I keep telling myself this,
Maybe I will listen.
Maybe I won’t feel bad,
When I am left in the dust.

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Am I a difficult person to be friends with?
Am I too awkward?
Am I too anxious?
Do I forget to hold my tongue?
What is it?

I don’t have many friends.
I don’t know what’s wrong with me.

People are friends with me,
until they find someone better.
I am never good enough. 
I am never the one they want to keep.

I hold on to friends too long.
Sometimes they say they want someone to hold on to them,
But when it comes to me, they let me go. 

Sometimes you have to be the one who let’s go.
It’s disheartening but you need to let go 

It is lonely at times, because you miss how things were.
Are you really missing it or are you missing what you thought you had?
When in reality it was all a lie.

I will be there for those who need me to be.
I will be there when you call me.
If you want me to go, tell me. 
And I will be gone but if you need me once more,
Life is too short to be angry. 

Cherish the friends you have.
If some want to leave, let them.
Life is too short to be angry.

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