Morphology

Morphology, in the study of linguistics, “…is the study of meaningful parts of words” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 180). New words are added to languages all the time, but they still must follow certain rules and guidelines already present in the language they are added to. The Oxford English Dictionary has added these words to the English language over the past 10 years, staycation, ransomware, astraphobia, vlog, and auto-tune. According to the article, What is Morphology, “…some newer words that have been added to English to describe newer concepts, ideas, and current trends. Though they seem spontaneous and unstructured at times, these and all words use set patterns of word formation, structure, and meaning outlined in the study of morphology.”  

According to Updates to the Oxford English Dictionary the word staycation was added to it in 2015. It comes from combining the word stay and vacation. It means a vacation from work where you stay at home. The word “stay” is made up of 1 lexical free morpheme (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p. 183). According to the article List of Morphemes-Lexicology, the word “vacation” is made up of two morphemes: [vacat(e)] + [-(t)ion]. [Vacate] is a free lexical morpheme and [-tion] is a grammatical bound derivational morpheme. Blending the two words together makes another compound-complex morpheme with 1 simple free morpheme and 1 bound morpheme (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p. 183). This word was added to our lexicon due to many people choosing to stay at home for vacation due to traveling becoming too expensive and in current times traveling almost impossible due to Covid regulations as well as Covid fears.  

The word ransomware was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2018, according to Updates to the Oxford English Dictionary. Ransomware comes from combing the words Ransom and ware. Ware means, according to the Merriam Webester Dictionary, intangible item that is marketable. This could be a service of an ability. According to the Merriam Webester Dictionary, ransom means, “A sum of money or other payment demanded or paid for the release of a prisoner.” The word ransom is made up of one lexical free morpheme and the word ware is also made up of one lexical free morpheme and together ransomware is a compound word (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p. 183). Why was this word added to our Lexicon? According to the article Ransomware: Headline News for the Oxford Dictionary, Everyday News for IT Teams, “Following incidents such as the 2017 WannaCry attack on the NHS, the British public now have a far greater awareness of cyber-attacks. The publicity surrounding the attack almost undoubtedly contributed to ransomware being added to the dictionary.” Since this attack, other similar attacks have unfortunately taken place.  

According to Updates to the Oxford English Dictionary the word astraphobia was added to it in March 2021. It means having an abnormal fear of thunder and lightning. According to Freeman & Freeman (2014) this word is a blend of 3 bound morphemes. The morphemes in astraphobia, according to the article List of Morphemes-Lexicology are in astra, phob and ia. Astra means stars or anything the sky. Phob means a fear. Ai means a condition. So, this is a condition where you fear something in the sky and in this situation thunder and lightning. This word was added to our lexicon because most people want to label a certain fear they have. This fear is irrational or abnormal and therapist have diagnosed people with this fear and have used different therapies to help people overcome this fear.  

The word vlog was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in March 2016, according to Updates to the Oxford English Dictionary. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, vlog means, “a blog that contains video material.” Vlog is a blending of the word blog with video. According to the article List of Morphemes-Lexicology the word vlog is made up of two words: “v” stands for “video” (which is composed of two bound morphemes: [vid-] + [-o]) and “log” is a free morpheme. Log is a lexical free morpheme. Log means to speak, write, read, and reason. Vid means to see. In the past few years, vlogs have become more popular. Many YouTube streamers have been creating vlogs which is why the word was added to the dictionary.  

According to Updates to the Oxford English Dictionary the word autotune was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2015. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, to adjust or alter (a recording) with Auto-Tune software especially to correct sung notes that are out of tune. The word auto-tune is made up of two free morphemes words (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p. 183). According to the article List of Morphemes-Lexicology auto which means hearing and tune which means music or melody. This word was added to our lexicon as new musical technologies were developed and more musicians are using such equipment.  

The study of etymology is an important part of English as well other subjects. Etymology is the study of words and their origins. As an English teacher, I would start by introducing students to roots, suffixes and prefixes. Understanding the meaning behind each of these could help my students break apart words they do not understand. It becomes a cross-curricular issue when students do not know the meanings of certain roots, suffixes and prefixes. Students can also use this skill when they are taken standardized test such as the ACT or the SATs. This can help increase their scores as well as help them breakdown words in different subjects. In my class I will work on introducing a list of roots, suffixes and prefixes each week. I will show my students how to break down words by using these tools to help them identity words they are not familiar with.  

Morphology, in the study of linguistics, “…is the study of meaningful parts of words” (Freeman and Freeman, 2014 p 180). These new words added to our Lexicon have to follow the same rules and guidelines as other words do. Familiarizing our students with morphemes can help them dissect words that are unfamiliar to them and increase their overall vocabulary.  

References 

Freeman, D. E,. & Freeman, Y. S., (2014). Essential Linguistics: What Teachers Need to Know 

 to Teach (7th ed.). Heinemann. 

List of Morphemes-Lexicology (N.D.) Retrieved from https://eyupdeniz.wordpress.com/2019/06 /04/list-of-morphemes-lexicology. /?fbclid=IwAR1WosfoI0Sn4rr4SJCjhkFXaKoZZ76aCdYsq4hkU_He2jGQjs7yqB5iktc  

Merriam-Webster. (2018). Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster.com.  https://www.merriam-webster.com/ 

New words List March 2021. (n.d.). Oxford English Dictionary. https://public.oed.com/updates/new-words-list-march-2021  

Oxford English Dictionary. (2021). Oxford English Dictionary. Oed.com. https://www.oed.com/ 

Ransomware: Headline News for the Oxford Dictionary, Everyday News for IT Teams. (n.d.) retrieved from https://www.espida.co.uk/2018/02/01/dictionary-adds-ransomware/ 

Updates to the Oxford English Dictionary (n.d.) Oxford English Dictionary. https://public.oed.com/updates/ 

What is Morphology? (n.d.). Retrieved from  https://linguisticsforteachersofells.weebly.com/morphology-in-the-classroom.html

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The Voice

The voice in the back of my head.
It tells me that I'm not good enough.
It tells me that I'm not smart enough.

It's the sweating of my palms,
It's the tightening of my heart.

It's the fear of failing,
It's the fear of trying.

The voice in the back of my head.
It tells me that I'm not pretty enough.
It tells me that I'm not cool enough.

It's the fear of rejection,
It's the fear of defeat.

The voice in the back of my head.
I tell it to be quiet.

I tell it that I am good enough
and smart and pretty.

I am good enough!

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Boy or Girl

I longed to hold you.
To see your face, to kiss your feet.
To hear your laughter, to hear your cries.

I wanted you came to when life was hard
I wanted you to when life was not.

To hold you and love you,
To tell you when you were wrong.

To tell you when you're right,
To be proud of you and watch you succeed.

Taken from me so young,
Before, I knew who you were.
I longed to be your mom.

To hold you when you're sad,
To laugh with you when you're happy.

To catch you when you fall,
and lift you up to the sky
Taken from me so young,
 Your little heart,
And now it beats no more,

To hold you just to know
if you are a boy or a girl.

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The Face I Wear

The face I wear is never sad.
It's never angry and never mad.

The face I wear never cries.
It's never bitter but it always lies.

The face I wear covers my pain.
The face I wear covers my fear.
The face I wear hides who I am.
It hides my sorrows and hides my pain.

The face I would like to see.
But the face I wear is always a lie.

The face I wear is what you see.
But that face
is not really me

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Trust No One

This is a poem about losing a friend. Sometimes we grieve a friend we lost but sometimes we grieve the friendship that was never there. It makes it difficult for us to open up again, but we need to be open. If we are not, then we lose the chance of making a real friend. 

No one to trust

Nowhere to go
I roam the streets looking
For help, for trust, for someone
To believe me and take me in

My heart is empty and hurt
From the pain of losing you
Losing what I thought was
Trust, hope and a friend

Naïve and stupid, now I trust no one
Are they all lies?

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Before the Sun

The alarm rings in my ear.
The morning light is still so far away.
I pull my covers over my head and groan.
Another day the same as the rest.
The smell of coffee fills the air.
The warm shower meets me with another groan.

I drive to work the moon greets me for.
The sun has not awoken yet.
Same roads each day,
I sip my coffee as I drive.
Driving in silence as I try to wake.

Each morning more of the same.

The alarm rings in my ear.
The morning light is still so far away.
I pull my covers over my head and groan.

Another day the same as the rest.
The smell of coffee fills the air.
The warm shower meets me with another groan.

I drive to work the moon greets me for,
The sun has not awoken yet.
I sip my coffee as I drive,
Driving in silence as I try to wake.

Each morning more of the same.

The alarm rings in my ear.
The morning light is still so far away.
I pull my covers over my head and groan.

Another day the same as the rest.
The smell of coffee fills the air.
The warm shower meets me with another groan.

I must face today another day.

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Thou Shalt Weep No More

grayscale photo of womans face
Photo by Marina Pechnikova on Pexels.com
Battered, Bleeding, and bruised
My spirit sags as it weeps but
No more
Distressed, lacerated, and mauled
I lay on the floor but
I weep no more

No more shall I weep
No more shall I mourn
A friendship that rots away
As it decays my the promise
Thou Shalt Weep No more

I gave you hope, I gave you trust
Now you scamper off like the
Rat you have proven to be
The cankerous promises
The corrosive lies of
Friendship and devotion

No more shall I weep
No more shall I mourn
A friendship that rots away
As it decays my heart
Thou shalt weep no more

Innocent, pure and unadulterated
Friendship tossed away
As it festers into nothingness.

No more shall I weep
No more shall I mourn
A friendship that rots away
As it decays my heart
Thou Shalt Weep no more

I am free from those
Burdens that lock us in place
I never again will fall prey
To those whose corrode the purity of friendship

No more shall I weep
No more shall I mourn
A friendship that rots away
As it decays my heart
Thou Shalt Weep No more

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Missed Chances

Two puzzle pieces lost in the shuffle.
A King without his Queen, the knight without his shield.

Two worlds, never to become one.
A tale never to be told.

Different times, different places, different lives.
So much alike, yet so far apart.

Missed chances, missed lives.
Moving in different ways, never the same.

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assorted puzzle game
Photo by Magda Ehlers on Pexels.com

Be Still

My head won’t be quiet.

Spinning and running it never stops.
Songs playing at the same time.
Thoughts of the day and days before.
Memories keeping me awake.
It Plaques my existence.

Be still my soul
Be still and sleep.

Sitting up in bed while everyone sleeps.
Wondering when it will be my turn.
When will the voices cease and I can rest?
Replaying events of the past.
Wishing they were different, Wishing I could change. 

Be still my soul.
Be still and sleep.

Be still and hear God.
Block all else out and only hear Him.

Pacing back and forth,
And rocking.
The noises never stop.
Pieces of songs, bits of advice.
Filling my mind keeping me awake.

Be still my soul.
Be still and sleep.
Be still my soul.
Be still and rest.

Block all the noise out. 
And only hear God’s voice.

Be still and only hear him.
Block all else out and only hear him.
He is calling to you!

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Until You

Love was always a puzzling thought. 
An ideal that was absent for most. 
Love was something foreign in my mind. 
Love was lost to me until you. 

Until you, I had no idea what love was. 
Until you, I was selfish and self-centered. 
Until you, love was just an idea. 
Until you, I was selfish and self-centered. 
Until you, love was just a word. 

Love was a common work, But the impact of such love.
I had not known until you. 
You came into my world, 
You knew my voice. 
My heart filled with joy. 

Until you, I had no idea what love was. 
Until you, I was selfish and self-centered. 
Until you, love was just an idea. 
Until you, I was selfish and self-centered. 
Until you, love was just a word. 

You held my finger, 
And I knew love was. 

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